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tunesmithth

“Don’t Lie To Yourself" was written & recorded in 2002.

(*Song title is a video link, allowing you to open it as a 2nd tab & listen as you read.)

 

The Idea

 

When I began the writing process, there wasn't much to work with.

· A simple chord progression, which evolved into my chorus section.

· The hook (title) – “Don’t Lie To Yourself” with a tentative melody for those 4 words.

That was it!

 

Subject Matter

 

Titles like this one paint a clear picture of the intended message.

Simply put, it’s lyrical advice – “be honest with yourself”.

Typically, lyrics with a ‘telling” tone are discouraged in songwriting circles.

It seems that people don’t enjoy being told what to do…even in a song. ;)

Regardless, I decided to make an exception.

In my mind, the title’s strengths outweighed its weaknesses.

It was memorable, flowed nicely & would contribute to the mood I was hoping to achieve.

 

Since the title was my central message, chorus sections were used to re-enforce that message & expand upon the “whys”.

 

Verse sections were written last. They were used to set the stage…creatively describing why the chorus message (lyrical hook) was important.

 

Lyrical message in a nutshell

 

Verses

Regardless of what we’re taught as children, lying is one of the undesirable realities of life. The older we get, the clearer that becomes.

It goes by many names in polite society…fabrication, mis-speaking, embellishment, selective omission, spin & stretching the truth.

But once you strip away the niceties, it boils down to varying degrees of one thing – "something other-than the absolute truth".

 

Choruses

Although lying is an ingrained part of our existence, we need to be honest with ourselves. Self-delusion benefits no one…least of all “you”.

 

Lyric

Spend our lives…tellin’ tales

Stretch and bend…the truth

Learned that when…reality fails

A lie may do

 

But don’t lie to yourself

You’re the only one to lose

Don’t lie to yourself

A lie only a fool would choose

 

Life demands…shaded truths

Hype & spin…abound

As we grow…beyond our youth

Truth is rarely found

 

But don’t lie to yourself

You’re the only one to lose

Don’t lie to yourself

A lie only a fool would choose

 

Don’t lie to yourself

You’re the only one to lose

Don’t lie to yourself

A lie only a fool would choose

Copyright 2002- Tom Hoffman

 

Song Structure

 

Introduction / Verse / Chorus / Instrumental Verse (guitar solo) / Verse / Double-Chorus / Brief Ending

 

Musical Fundamentals

 

The song is set in the key of E minor.

BPM 116

 

Unusual as it seems, the “introduction” was the last thing added to this arrangement.

What can I tell ya’? It happens! :rolleyes:

Fortunately, I recalled a guitar didi that I’d stumbled upon the year before. It fit the texture of the song, but I needed something to merge it with the first verse.

My solution was a single bass note, sounded on the last count of the intro. In the final mix, that note begins quietly, then grows into the verse…gradually becoming louder.

 

That intro guitar didi consists of 2 separate acoustic guitar tracks.

  • The first plays nothing but 2-note intervals.
  • The 2nd is comprised of open string harmonics, which generate an eerie texture.

The guitar arrangement for this song was a bit of an experiment. Other than bass, there are no electric guitars.

It contains 3 separate acoustic guitar tracks, each performed on my trusty Yamaha & recorded through an MXL condenser mic.

 

5a8c72c1ab432_Best_Clearest_Shot.thumb.JPG.dfd145bdbb9271bef68039ae708940d2.JPG

 

The simulated strings you hear weren’t part of my original version. I had no keyboard capability back then.

They were added to the existing 2-track master a few years later.

 

Real drums were used. The part itself employs both half-time & full-time beat structures.

  • Half time is used exclusively until the 2nd chorus section.
  • Both the 2nd & 3rd chorus sections are set in full-time.
  • Finally, it switches back to half-time for the ending.

 

DSC02247.thumb.JPG.655b1618eecb5343593886ced229bf00.JPG

 

Final Production Notes

 

The recording was done on a Tascam PortaStudio 788. It’s an 8-track digital deck, consisting of 6 mono & 1 stereo channels.

 

sim.jpg.3d71d5fd73557ef096f71e82922dd402.jpg

 

 - Drums were recorded to the only stereo pair of tracks (7 &8)

 - Everything else went to single mono tracks....no doubling of any parts

 

Performance Credits

  • Drums, Acoustic Guitars, Bass, Keyboard Strings – Tom Hoffman
  • Vocals – Tom Hoffman

Supplemental Video (50 sec. clip of guitar solo portion) - https://youtu.be/vHfuWSaYYYI

 

Tom Hoffman
"About Me" Muse Member pg.

Tom Hoffman YouTube

 

tunesmithth

- Understanding the Thought Process Behind Drum-Part Creation -

 

Whether you compose through electronic means or utilize an actual drum kit, it’s helpful to know what works best, what doesn’t & why. Regardless of method, the thought process behind creation is the same.

 Brief audio snippets (green text) are scattered throughout this article. Opening the links as “new tabs” allows you to hear the example while you’re reading the corresponding description.

 

As a starting point, I’ve put together a short-list of variables. These are things I take into consideration when structuring drum parts for a new song.

 

  1. What’s the genre of the song?

 

For a multitude of reasons, I don't begin structuring a final drum part until song-basics are pretty well set.

By basics, I mean:

  • Melody
  • A rough idea of lyrical content & subject matter
  • Backing chord patterns (basics of the song's musical movement)
  • Tentative song structure (intro, verse, chorus, bridge, etc.) 

Those basic components tell me what type of song I'm dealing with. Regardless of personal preference, the drum part you craft should be an appropriate match for song & genre.

For example, a typical metal drum line probably won't fit well in a country/pop song.

By itself, the part may sound cool & impressive. More-so, if you happen to be a fan of metal. The thing is, no one will ever hear it by itself! It’ll only be heard within the context of the song.

Bottom line - writing new parts is always about how they affect the song as a whole, NOT about the part itself. As a drummer, I was slow to learn that lesson. As a songwriter, it was immediately obvious. Perspective is an amazing thing!

 

Genre is a vague concept. Because of that, it's not unusual for a song to straddle several. Proper arrangement choices (including drum parts) can help push that song in one direction or another.

Let’s look at a specific example (audio snippet #1) …say your song straddles country & pop. You could push it in the direction of country by employing twangy guitars and a country sounding drum part.

 

  1. How is the movement of the melody structured (meter, flow, rhythm)?

 

Remember…melody is the single most important part of any song! Whether it's sung or played instrumentally, that melody & its appeal have a huge effect on the song's likability. If you're the songwriter, this is your money-maker. 

Protect it at all costs! If you're the drummer, you need to recognize & accept a harsh reality. Your drum part will NOT be the reason that listeners like the song! It can certainly be a contributing factor, but it will NOT the big reason.

 

I was a drummer long before I became a songwriter, so I've stood on both sides of this argument. Drummers prefer challenging parts…songwriters want parts appropriate for the song.

And while I do empathize, it all boils down to this…“arrangements are created as support for songs”, not the other way around. What matters most is how your part effects the song as a whole.  

 

Moving right along, try to craft something that compliments the melodic movement of the song. Once you have a specific part in mind, try playing it along with the melody.

If others are involved in the project, ask for their input. If you’re working alone, songwriter/musician forums can be useful for obtaining outside perspectives.

 

  1. What type of arrangement do you have in mind?

 

I'm not suggesting the whole arrangement be set-in-stone before starting the drum part, but it’s helpful to have at least a rough idea.

  • Do you plan to use piano?
  • Are you thinking of multiple guitar tracks?
  • Might additional percussion be a good fit (congas, tambourine, shaker, etc.)?  

What I’m getting at is this…whatever ideas you do have for the arrangement, factor those into the creation of your drum part.

I’ll list a few more in-depth examples:

 

A) If you plan a busy arrangement…with lots of instrumental movement, a simpler drum part may be better. A song isn't a contest for dominance! If you have cool ideas for intricate piano parts & a tasteful signature guitar track,

your drum part should allow those parts to shine throughNo, the drums don’t have to be boring! Just build the complexities into simpler song sections. Those piano & guitar parts I referred to…let's say they’re intended for the verses & bridge.

That means your chorus sections can employ a more sophisticated drum part. Varying the dominant instrument from section to section adds variety to an arrangement. It also makes the dominant instrument more noticeable.

When that chorus section rolls around & the drums start kicking butt, that change immediately grabs the listeners’ attention.

 

B Sometimes arrangements are sparse. It’s not unheard of to strip instrumentation down, utilizing only bass & drums for the verse sections. This type of arrangement presents the perfect opportunity for creative drum parts.

You can experiment with intricate syncopation, polyrhythms…really flex those creative muscles.

Limited, simple instrumentation = fewer potential conflicts.  

 

C) If some parts of your arrangement are already fixed (final), do those parts heavily accent specific counts? Do several parts accent the same counts? I ask these questions because it is possible to over-do accents.

Too much duplication can make an arrangement sound stiff.  

 

D) What impact, if any, would you like drums to have on the songs’ development.... beginning-to-end?

I’ll clarify that question a bit by breaking it into smaller parts:

 

a) Would you like the song to build as it progresses?

If you do, drums are an easy way to achieve that end. It's not uncommon to bring them in gradually, layering in additional complexity & momentum as the song progresses.

 

b Would you like a specific section of the song to jump out & grab the listener’s attention? (snippet #2) One way to achieve that is to hold back much of the instrumentation (including all the drums).

The song you hear playing in the background does exactly that. "The Real World" begins with a verse comprised of a single guitar & vocal, adds an organ around the half-way point,

then smacks you all at once with the entry of drums, bass, piano, a second guitar & doubled vocal.

 

c) Would you prefer drums to play a minimal part in the songs’ development?

One way to achieve that is with a consistent sounding drum track. Something with the same feel start-to-finish. "Rain King" by Counting Crows is a great example of consistency.    

 

d) Would a change in drum tempo, from half time - to full time be useful? (snippet #3)

It’s a common method for varying the feel of a song. Say your song is set at 120 BPM. The beat used for your verse sections can be made to feel as if it's being played at 60 BPM, while the choruses are played full-time (120 BPM).

 

Selecting Beat Patterns

 

Have you ever heard a song on the radio & been instantly being drawn to it? For years I accepted that experience at face value, never bothering to ask myself why. Then I began writing songs. As a writer, I discovered it was in my best interest to explore those whys.

Why am I attracted to some songs more than others? For me, the answer has a lot to do with the feel & flow of a song. Both of which depend upon beat & rhythmic choices.

 

You may have noticed that the subtitle for this section is plural - ”patterns”. Ideally, you will select MORE THAN ONE.

It's not uncommon to use 2 or 3 variations of a basic pattern for the verses of a song, then select something entirely different for the choruses.

Bridge sections are often assigned unique patterns, to help set them apart from the rest of the song.

 

Before leaving this section, I’ll share a few commonly used methods for building in variation. (*All examples assume a right-handed drummer.)

 

1) You can vary the specific part of the drum set being played by the right hand from section-to-section. (snippet #4) For example - hi-hat for the verses, ride cymbal for the chorus sections.

It's a small change, but the impact on the overall texture of the song can be quite dramatic. For additional variety, you can sprinkle in a few hi-hat openings, as this example does in the verse sections.

 

2) You can vary hi-hat technique within a given song section. Playing it tightly-closed produces a very crisp, structured sound. Playing it semi-opened gives you a looser, free-floating feel. It's common for harder-driving songs to use the 2nd option.

Pop rock & country tend to employ the tightly closed version, but often combine the 2 techniques. For example - tightly closed most of the verse, then semi-opened for the final measure or two. That small change produces a shift in texture just prior to entry of the chorus. The variance also serves to announce the coming of a change. It often precedes a cymbal crash, which punctuates the actual change in sections.

 

3) You can employ a basic right-hand rhythm, then utilize misc. percussion to embellish the feel of the pattern. For example - a quiet 1/4 note right-hand hi-hat (1-2-3 & 4 counts), then on a separate track record a tambourine or soft-shake to fill-in the straight 1/8 note feel. That gives it a busier, more constant overall texture. It also adds variety & depth to the rhythmic feel.

 

4) It’s common in metal & hard rock genres for the right hand to play a straight pattern on the edge of a crash-ride cymbal. This technique produces an effect comparable to a prolonged crash.

When it’s combined with the heavy rates of compression that are commonly used in those genres, it adds a blurred, heavy edge to the song.

 

I have one final piece of beat-pattern advice to pass on to non-drummer songwriters. Please…when you put together a song demo, DON’T select a single mechanical beat & use it beginning-to-end.

IMHO nothing makes a demo sound more amateurish! It doesn’t have to sound like Neil Peart, but it does need some variation.

Remember…every part of an arrangement impacts the listener’s impression. That includes your drum track! ;)

 

The Story on Rolls (Fills)

 

You’ll find that opinions vary on….

· when to use a roll

· what type is most appropriate

· how complex they should be

For drummers, many of those decisions are determined by personal style.

Since most non-drummer songwriters lack percussive expertise, they tend to be guided by listening experience.

For this tutorial, I’m going to stick to basics & allow plenty of room for personal discretion.

 

Beats serve primarily to establish rhythmic feel, but rolls are used for a variety of functions:

1) Prevent monotony - In other words, to break up the consistent flow established by your beats, making the overall rhythm track more interesting.

2) Serve as fills… much as lead licks, keyboard or bass riffs do. Rolls are frequently placed between lyric/melody lines to help fill gaps & maintain the momentum.

3) Indicate (announce) a coming change, as demonstrated by the next audio clip

(snippet #5)

Some examples being….

  • the start of a new vocal sequence
  • a change from verse to chorus
  • a shift in dynamics…quiet to loud, or visa-versa 

Rolls are also used in combination with lead licks, or other fill elements. (snippet #6)

When they’re employed in this way, caution should be exercised. You want to avoid timing conflicts between fill instruments.

Bottom line – it’s harder to pull-off, but very cool when it’s done cleanly!

 

It’s common to alternate fill instruments. You can use a drum roll this time, a guitar lick next time, keyboard run, and so on.

This will get you even more variety, with the added benefit of making each fill instrument more prominent.

Listeners notice them more because they’re the only instrument presenting variation at that particular moment.

 

To Crash or Not-To Crash

 

Cymbal crashes are useful tools when employed tastefully. 

Here are a few examples of common applications:

- to accent, or call attention to a specific count within a measure

- to add dynamics to a section of music by boosting the high-end frequencies & overall volume of that specific section

- to mark a change in the structure of the song (for example, moving from the verse to chorus)

- in combination with rolls, particularly longer, more elaborate ones…to break them up, reinforce accents and add color, as shown in the brief demonstration below

 

 

 

Tom Hoffman
"Arrangement 101" resource pg.

Tune-Smith.com

tunesmithth

In this age of FREE advice, suggestions & web tutorials, how does one go about differentiating the credible from the questionable…the legitimate from the bogus?

 

“The internet is full of bad advice & information”.

 

Sound familiar?

Unfortunately, it’s true!

Our online world has more than its’ share of misdirection & incompetence…some deliberate, some not.

So, what’s a poor site surfing seeker of information to do?

My suggestion is simple.

We need to become more discriminating consumers.

How do we accomplish that?

By forcing ourselves to examine & evaluate the sources of our information?

 

Anonymity is one of the biggest advantages to operating online.

It’s also one of the biggest obstacles to the validation of information.

As long as you talk a good game, you can masquerade as whoever or whatever you chose.

And while there are valid reasons for masking online identity, there are just as many questionable ones.

That being the case, I propose that internet trust be earned, not given indiscriminately.

 

For musician/songwriters, the web is a useful tool. Forums like this one provide an environment for people with similar interests to learn and interact.

But they also serve as a breeding ground for posers. It takes a while to figure out who’s legitimate & who’s not, but that’s a necessary part of the process.

 

So, how does one go about verifying online credibility?

Hopefully, the individual in question has made that a simple process.

I’ll use myself as an example.

  • I have little need or desire to mask my internet persona. In a nutshell, what you see is what you get!

         My name is Tom Hoffman…I chose the member-name “tunesmithth” because my primary website is tune-smith.com & my initials are TH.

         I deliberately avoid exaggerating my musical credentials. What credentials I do claim, are easily verified.

  • The “About Me” section of my member profile is detailed & publicly available. It contains both member name & real name, as does my “Tips & Tidbits” blog.

         It also provides a link to the Metro St. Louis Historical Site http://www.stlmusicyesterdays.com/Nickels.htm. You’ll find my name listed near the top.

  • My member signature, which displays at the bottom of every post, includes 4 links….3 YouTube channels + Tune-Smith.com.

         5aaaa4a13396a_Musemembersignature.PNG.b52b731c00b22296aa848c894396f9c2.PNG 

                 

  • Accessing those links, pages & blog gives you access to original mp3s, drum tutorials, guitar & drum demonstrations, music videos, an “Arrangement 101” playlist, published articles, photos, etc.
  • The Library of Congress website is searchable by title (*Songs by TEH), or registrant name. Either will yield a history of copyright registrations for Tom Hoffman...a matter of public record.

         5aaaa5b3df2b2_LibraryofCongressscreencapture-SongsbyTEH.thumb.PNG.2556cceb68416896d737ff356664ef58.PNG

  • What I never volunteer is exact date of birth, where I went to school, political preference, religious affiliation, etc.

         The only ones who benefit from data like that are Identity thieves, data collection entities, marketing firms & special interest groups.

 

So, given that I’ve provided all the resources necessary to assess my musical qualifications, does that mean you should trust my advice implicitly?

In a word, NO! :rolleyes:

But it does mean that I’ve done my part.

All I can do is make the information available.

It’s your responsibility to research, evaluate & decide who to place your trust in!

No one can do it for you and you shouldn’t want them to!   

 

When it comes to my own online interactions, I operate by a simple rule. Unless you’ve done your part, I’ll probably disregard your advice.

Sorry, but if I can’t verify that you’re qualified to offer me the advice, I won’t be taking it seriously!

I’ll probably respond courteously, thanking you for your insights. I simply won’t act on them!

Why would I?

If you’re a relative stranger and you haven’t bothered to provide some sort of qualifying credentials, how would you expect anyone to take you seriously?

In fact, shame on anyone who does!

 

So where does that leave the individual who’s determined to maintain online anonymity? As I mentioned earlier, there are legitimate reasons for choosing to do so.

But, those reasons don’t outweigh our need to verify. Bottom line…if people aren’t in a position to supply something, they forfeit their right to be taken seriously.

Life’s a trade-off! 

People who truly have the need to operate anonymously should be willing to recognize the limitations imposed by that.

Fair or not, I simply don’t know a better way. 

 

*Please refer to member comments below for case-in-point.

 

Tom Hoffman

tunesmithth

The original version of “Middle Class Blues” was written / copyrighted back in 1998.

*Song title is a video link. If you open it as a 2nd browser window (new tab), that'll allow you to listen as you read. 

As is sometimes the case, I liked the song, but not the arrangement.

In 2001 I remedied that situation with a partial rewrite.

The revised version incorporated several new elements:

  • a 40 second introduction
  • a 2nd guitar part (rhythm)

This new arrangement was re-recorded & that’s the version you’re hearing now.

 

The Idea

 

The song evolved from a guitar progression, set in minor pentatonic block form.

  • I stumbled upon the pattern while practicing scales
  • Built a song & melody around it
  • Chose a topic that worked well with the music
  • Created a lyric 

Subject Matter

 

In a nutshell, it’s about the plight of middle-class America.

As you might expect, it’s written from my perspective & based primarily on personal observations & experiences.

Completely appropriate since songwriting is a means of creative self-expression.

 

Lyric

Got those middle class blues

 

Well when I look at my economic state

With what I make I ought to be livin’ great

You gotta know my heart gets to feelin’ down

When tax time comes around

 

I pay for schools that I don’t even use

I fund a war on drugs that we’re bound to lose

You got know that I keep-a-waitin’ for

Some way to even the score

 

Got those middle class blues!

 

Well now I know that I need to pay my share

But while suppliers get rich from Medicare

I’ve got to ask myself what it’s all about

I just can’t figure it out !

 

The wealthy don’t pay much, cause they know the game

The underprivileged can’t, the end result’s the same

That leaves the middle class to pay & pay

Hope we get our someday!

 

Got the middle class blues!

Copyright 1998 – Tom Hoffman

 

Over the years, the timeless nature of this lyric has been mentioned more than once.

Sadly enough, it’s as relevant now as it was in 98.

  • Purchasing power of the middle class hasn’t improved.
  • Middle class tax burden hasn’t decreased.
  • I still pay into a tax base for schools that I’ve never used. NO, I’m not advocating a school voucher alternative! I simply have no children. No children = no use of schools.
  • Our “war on drugs” has been an utter failure, yet we continue funding it with tax dollars year after year.
  • Pharmaceutical profits continue to grow, since our government is no longer allowed to negotiate the cost of Medicare drugs. Thank you G.B.! :rolleyes:
  • More tax loopholes exist for the wealthy today.
  • The poor are no more able to contribute to our tax base than they were in 98.
  • Leaving the middle class to shoulder the lions’ share of the tax burden.

The end result being – “We’ve got the Middle-Class Blues!”

None of those areas has shown improvement in the past 20 years.

I’m sure there are conclusions to be drawn from that, but I leave those to you.

I am but a humble songwriter stating the obvious. :blush:

 

Song Structure

 

Introduction / Verse – Verse - Refrain / Guitar Based Verse-Refrain Section /

Verse – Verse - Refrain / Ends on Repeat of Musical Refrain

 

Musical Fundamentals

 

“Middle Class Blues” is a guitar-based arrangement…key of A# minor.

If I do say so myself, some of my more creative guitar work.

 

When I made the decision to add that 40 second musical introduction, I doomed the song to commercial failure.

If you weren’t aware, long introductions are frowned upon in the world of commercial songwriting.

Since the average listener tends to focus on vocal, delaying its’ entry is tempting fate.

Attention spans being what they are, your listener may go elsewhere.

 

BUT…since I’m not a professional songwriter, my focus was on creating a well written song, not a commercially viable one!

When you make your living elsewhere, you can afford to base decisions on personal preference, rather than industry norms.

That being said, I did build in a little something to help with damage control...“Got those Middle Class Blues”!

That single line of vocal at the beginning of the song:

1. Tells the listener that there WILL BE vocals in the song. Why does that matter? Because some people, including my wife, won't listen to instrumentals. If she thinks it’s an instrumental, she will simply turn it off.

2. Re-enforces the lyrical hook…that catchy phrase you want to stick in your listeners’ head after the song has ended. BTW in this song, it’s also the last line heard.

 

Final Production Notes 

 

This was one of the first songs I recorded after upgrading to the digital realm.

My Tascam PortaStudio 788 had a total of 8 recordable tracks…6 mono & one stereo pair (tracks 7 & 8).

sim.jpg.ac6c5a2afd1a6e41e460e4f26c1a935f.jpg

 

  • 4 tracks were used for guitar, all done with my SG
  • 1 track for bass guitar
  • 1 for vocal
  • Drums were recorded in stereo (7/8)

DSC02310.thumb.JPG.afc51124787c761a7e4c8b51d58d8566.JPG 

 

5ada138ac3286_DSC02247(800x732).jpg.37080de10e89832ea2bbb6e2f53a392c.jpg

 

Performance Credits 

Guitars, Bass, Drums & Vocal – Tom Hoffman

 

Tom Hoffman
"About Me" Muse Member pg.

Tune-Smith.com

Tom Hoffman YouTube

tunesmithth
A collection of 4 videos dealing with various aspects of new song arrangement.
The cover photos below are encoded as a hyperlinks, so clicking on them opens the video.
 

                                                     (7:59) 
 

                                                    (7:36) 
 

                                                    (5:00) 
 

                                                     (7:30) 
 
Hopefully, you find this new playlist helpful 
BTW none of these videos contain ads...comments & suggestions for future videos are welcome.
 
Tom Hoffman
"About Me" Muse Member pg.
Tune-Smith.com
Tom Hoffman YouTube
tunesmithth
“Slow Down” was my very first song.
(*Song title is an mp3 link. You're welcome to listen as you read.)
 
Originally written/arranged/recorded in 1995, it was rerecorded 3 years later.  
Although copyright is considered valid from the date of creation (1995), the song wasn’t officially registered with the Library of Congress until 1998.
 
 
The Idea
 
Typically, my songs evolve from one of 4 starting points:
- a chord progression
- a riff/pattern
- a section of melody
- a central theme
 
This particular song grew out of a progression. While experimenting with combinations of 2 & 3 note intervals, an interesting pattern emerged.
It utilizes traditional I-IV-V framework, but layered changes within the framework give it a unique flavor.
 

 
Fundamentals
 
The song is set in Mixolydian mode. For those not familiar with the term, it’s essentially a diatonic major scale/key, with the 7th note flattened.
The flattening of that single note alters the step pattern, dramatically changing the feel of the resulting composition.
Although it’s common practice to utilize notes not contained in the primary scale (key), I chose not to do that.
Every note played or sung in this song falls within the confines of A mixolydian.
 
Three separate guitar tracks were written for this arrangement.
The primary guitar plays the progression depicted in that earlier tab chart. The secondary guitar part is all 2-note intervals. Guitar track #3 is comprised of single-note leads and fills.  Song Structure
 
Introduction (8 sec.) / 8 Bar Musical Interlude / Verse-Refrain / 4 Bar Interlude / Verse-Refrain / Bridge (Middle-8) / 8 Bar Interlude / Verse-Refrain / Ending w. fade
 
Subject Matter
 
Because of the feel established by that primary guitar progression, this song wouldn’t have worked with an uplifting lyric.
Serious, dark subject matter was called for & substance abuse (specifically alcoholism) was my final choice.
 
I wrote it from the perspective of the alcoholic (first person), in this case male.
It depicts the abuser’s downward spiral, revealing his changing mind-set as the addiction progresses & the relationship disintegrates.
 
Melody & meter were written before the lyric, as is the case with most of my songs.
The downside of this particular structure was that it didn’t allow for many words.
I had to rely on subtle changes in person, tense & tone to convey my lyrical message.
Personally, I enjoy the challenge that comes with that style of writing, but it does present obstacles:
The message/meaning isn’t as obvious. A greater burden is placed upon the listener to listen intently. If you try to cherry-pick key words & phrases from this lyric, as happens with more popular forms of music, you’re likely to miss the point.  Lyric
I smile and start another day
You smile and tell me it’s OK
We should have known we would get through it
You’d think we’d know by now
I promise I…won’t drink much tonight
 
I know I blame my life on you
You tell me I don’t have a clue
You should have known not to back-talk me
I’d think you’d know by now
I know that I..said I would slow down
 
Should slow down
Must slow down
Will slow down
Next week swear I’ll slow down!
 
I get up & start another day
You’re not here to tell me it’s OK
I should have known you didn’t love me
You’d think I’d know by now
I don’t care if…I ever slow down!
 
Final Production Notes
 
Both the 1995 and 98 recordings of this were done on a Tascam 424 (4-track analog cassette recording deck).
 
 
 
Some years later, when I converted to a digital setup, those original analog tracks were transferred to the new digital system, cleaned up, compressed & remixed.
That digital remix is the version you’re listening to now.
 
Recording process:
The drum track was recorded all at once. No overdubs were possible, because it was done using a freestanding electronic metronome. With old analog decks, if you tried to record a standard click-track, you’d end up with ghosts of it bleeding through to other tracks. Even after the click track was erased, remnants of it remained & would be audible on the final recording. Drums & bass guitar shared a single-mono track. Drums were recorded first, then primary guitar, then bass. At that point in the process, a premix of drums & bass was bounced over to the remaining open track. That premix-bounce allowed the original recordings of each to be erased. Additional guitar was recorded onto 1 of those newly vacated tracks…lead vocal onto the other. Final lead licks were recorded last, squeezed onto whatever track space remained. All guitar parts were recorded through a mic'd amp, with effects already applied. EQ & effects for the drum track were added pre-tape.  Compared to modern standards, this was like working with stone knives & bearskins, but it got the job done!  
 
Performance Credits
Drums, Guitars, Bass guitar & Vocal – Tom Hoffman Supplemental Video (1 min. 9 sec. demonstration / primary guitar progression) – https://youtu.be/x5dzZMNeVlk
 
Tom Hoffman
"About Me" Muse Member pg.
Tune-Smith.com
Tom Hoffman YouTube
 
*BTW that MP3 link at the top is set-up as free download.
If you'd like a copy for your personal use, you have my permission.
tunesmithth
Learning a 2nd instrument can be incredibly beneficial, particularly for drummers.
Most drummers possess a reasonable understanding of rhythm, timing & dynamics, but drums don't offer much exposure to concepts like melody, pitch & harmony.
Because they lack relevance, they’re rarely taught.
 
The thing is, that lack of knowledge leaves a gaping hole in one’s ability to understand, appreciate & create music.
It did for me!
I simply didn't realize it at the time. 
 
During my 9 years as a drummer/singer, I was content to focus exclusively on those 2 skills.
Why?
I'm not altogether sure!
I guess I’d convinced myself that widening my scope would somehow detract from my current abilities.
Looking back, I can see that was a load of crap.
But as we all know, hindsight is 20/20. 
If I had it to do again, I wouldn't hesitate to take advantage of the excellent musicians around me.
Several of whom would have been happy to share their knowledge for free.
Fortunately, in the final analysis, if we learn matters more than when. 
Eventually I did expand my musical horizons.

Specific Instrument Recommendations
 
Both guitar & piano (keyboard) deal with melody, pitch and harmony.
While there are other instruments to choose from, guitar & keyboard offer one big advantage over many others.
Both are capable of playing multiple notes simultaneously.
In other words - chords.
Chords & harmony are inseparably linked…synonymous parts of the larger musical puzzle.
 
Guitar & keyboard offer a wider range of practical applications.
Either should qualify you to:
· recreate recognizable parts of your favorite songs
· play strictly for your own enjoyment
· function as part of a band
· write your own songs
· accomplish combinations of the above
An overwhelming majority of songwriters choose piano or guitar as their primary writing instrument.
I chose guitar.

Last, but not least, learning a melodic instrument aids in developing your sense of pitch. 
As a drummer…even a singing drummer, you may think you hear pitch well.
I did 
But it's amazing how much improvement occurs with the addition of a melodic instrument.
 
I began noticing a difference after my first year of guitar.
I was listening to some of my old vinyl albums & started hearing pitch imperfections in vocal tracks I’d listened to hundreds of times before.
Was I listening differently…was my turntable out of adjustment?
Nope!
All that had changed was my perception.
Pitch imperfections which had always been there, I was now able to discern.
 
Unfortunately, to truly understand what I’ve tried to describe, you need to experience it.  
So, don't take my word for it…find out for yourself !
 
Tom Hoffman
"About Me" Muse Member pg.
Tune-Smith.com
Tom Hoffman YouTube
 

tunesmithth
“Too Small To Save" was written & arranged in 2008….recorded & mixed in early 2009.
The original recorded tracks were remixed in 2014. That 2014 version is the one you’re hearing now. The Idea
 
My songs typically evolve from….
- a chord progression
- a riff/pattern
- a section of melody
- a central theme
 
In this case, it was 2 of those elements combined.
1. A guitar progression (riff/pattern)
2. A central theme, which was also served as the title (hook)
In songwriting, it’s essential for the subject matter to blend with the musical feel. In other words, one should complement the other. In my humble opinion, that is the case here.
 
Subject Matter
 
This particular lyric hit pretty close to home. It was loosely based on my wife’s employer, who shall remain nameless.
The lyrical message was inspired-by…and based-upon changing conditions following the financial collapse of 2008.
Simply put, none of those changes benefited the employees & most didn’t bode well for the financial future of the company.
Much to my surprise, the company survived. The employees however, were a different story. Most of what they lost was never returned.
The financial recovery that followed did little to benefit them.
 
The title “Too Small To Save” was applicable to both employer & employee. At the time this song was written, both fit the description…seeming doomed to failure.
As you may have guessed, the title was also a tongue & cheek play on that infamous 2008 headline - “Too Big To Fail”.
While banks & auto manufacturers were too big to fail, small companies & employees were “Too Small To Save”. Essentially, the yin & yang of monetary policy.
 
Structurally, the lyric is brief…with a generous dose of repetition. The message is heavily reliant on imagery & metaphors, which is not typical of my lyrics.
Because the subject matter was both current & dismal, I chose an artsy lyrical format.
 
Lyrics: 
Too small…too small to save
Just another business crushed by the wave
One more tiny fish…too small to save
 
A victim…of the economy
No golden parachute waits for me
Almost 80 years business don’t count these days
No friends in high places…too small to save
 
Last call…for 401Ks
Get ‘em while you can…they’re fadin’ away
It’s closin’ time cause we’re…too small to save
 
Copyright 2008- Tom Hoffman
 
Song Structure
 
Introduction / Verse-Refrain / Instrumental Verse-Refrain (guitar solo) / Bridge / Verse-Refrain / Ending
 
Musical Fundamentals 
 
Musically, the song was built around a single guitar progression. It’s the one you hear being played throughout the intro & verse-refrain sections. 
Key of Aminor….BPM 100
Genre-wise, I’d have to call it blues-rock.
The arrangement is guitar-based, utilizing 3 separate mono tracks. My Gibson SG was used for two of those.
The 3rd was a mixture of Strat & SG…with Strat being chosen for the bridge section. Its’ single coil pickups were useful in creating thinner sounding guitar textures.
 
             
 
- One of those 3 tracks contains intermittent lead guitar.
- The other 2 are the primaries, heard throughout the song.
The verse/refrain sections consist of 1 guitar playing the primary progression, while a 2nd guitar plays 3-note power chords (I-V-octave). The bridge was intended to have a unique feel, so both guitar parts change dramatically. The SG picks single notes within standard open chord forms, while the Strat strums triads (3-note chord forms…I-III-V). The core drum track was creating using a Boss DR-670 drum machine.
After 13 years of recording with "real drums", I converted to the Boss unit in 2007.
Being a drummer, I had mixed feelings about using synthetic drums. But the additional control, flexibility & convenience of the machine method sold me on the change.
Suffice to say that recording live drums in a single-person home studio setup is a tedious process! Regardless, the marching snare used for the bridge section was an actual drum.
Since machine decay makes crash cymbals sound VERY artificial, all crashes were overdubbed onto separate tracks, using actual cymbals.
 
Final Production Notes 
 
The recording, editing & mixing were done on a PortaStudio 2488….a 24 track Tascam deck.
(*Tascam is on the right, between the keyboard & the rack-mounts)
 
 
 
Performance Credits
Drums, Guitars, Bass Guitar – Tom Hoffman Vocals – Tom Hoffman *This article is taken from a YouTube playlist series of the same name.
For anyone interested, I've pasted in a link to the video version, which includes the song in it's entirety. 
(FYI - the audio begins around the 15 second mark.)
https://youtu.be/8A6W4OarAWY
 
 
Tom Hoffman
"About Me" Muse Member pg.
Tune-Smith.com
Tom Hoffman YouTube
tunesmithth
Until recently, I knew very little about how YouTube deals with copyright violators.
Sure…I’d heard stories from friends & colleagues, but I’d never actually dealt with it firsthand.
Now I have!
 
For those who aren’t aware, I’m a long-time YouTuber. I set up my first channel in January of 2010 & currently administrate five. Even with 5 channels, I’d never had occasion to post work I didn’t own or, at the very least, have permission to use. A few weeks back, I decided to try something new…a series called “Play Along”. The videos consist of me playing drums to a prerecorded song. Not exactly a revolutionary concept, but it was new for me & sounded like fun!
 
My original intent was to post each video without the copyrighted audio. That would have avoided the legal quagmire, but it would have made the finished product less interesting. After some deliberation, I decided to roll the dice & include the audio. If nothing else, it would serve as a learning experience.
 
When I formatted my video, I used an mp3 iTunes version of the audio (song). Typically, mp3s of this type contain tagging which allows the track to be detected on platforms like YouTube. I uploaded the project & classified it as an “unlisted” video. This is standard practice for me. Once I view the upload & verify that it’s intact, I change the classification to “public”. Since it was late, I put that final review off till the next morning.
 
By the time I logged back on that next day….
·  YouTube’s technology had detected my use of the copyrighted material.
·  They’d sent me a Gmail notification listing my options.
·  My video had been tagged & set up for AD monetization…pending my approval.
 
Remember, at this point the video was still classified as “unlisted”. I hadn’t even checked the viability of the upload yet. It seems the wheels of progress turn quickly when there’s revenue at stake!  
Fortunately for me, this was the outcome I was hoping for. Most of those 2nd hand stories I mentioned earlier described a similar process.
 
Here’s a copy of that actual YouTube notice…..  
 
Additional details:
·  When you hover over the “Video blocked in 1 country” statement, it tells you which country…in this case - Germany.
When you hover over the “Monetized by claimant” statement, this notice appears – “You can use the copyrighted content in your video, but ads might appear on your video.” As you can see, the poster is given 3 basic choices: 1.    Do nothing, indicating that you agree with the arrangements already negotiated.
2.    Remove the copyrighted song
3.    File a dispute over the ownership of contested material, in this case the play-along audio track.
* Clicking on the “Learn More” link took me to a page containing this statement –  
 
In the spirit of full disclosure, that page also contained information pertaining to other potential outcomes. Occasionally, the owner of rights can strongly object.
In rare cases, your standing as a YouTube member can be affected…. negatively & permanently.
 
So…the bottom line is this - doing what I did is a bit of a crap-shoot.  
There is a chance it could affect your standing on YouTube.
BUT, the vast majority of the time, you’re likely to get an outcome similar to mine.
In my case it was win-win. They allowed me to use the audio + I gained first-hand knowledge of their procedures.
Once I finally viewed the upload & changed the classification to “public”, I placed this statement in the liner notes… 
 For anyone interested, here’s a link to the video discussed here. https://youtu.be/VRdqL_UCQz0
 
Tom Hoffman
"About Me" Muse Member pg.
Tune-Smith.com
Tom Hoffman YouTube
tunesmithth
Nothing too dramatic here...thought I start by introducing myself. 
 
Hi y'all...my name is Tom Hoffman (aka tunesmithth). 
Believe it or not, I've been a member here since December of 2006.
Despite my lengthy tenure, I haven't been around much in recent years.
That absence was due primarily to affiliation with a different forum, which shall remain nameless.
There, I was a regular participant & staff member for more than a decade.
Long story short...that is no longer the case!
For reasons of my own, I have permanently severed all ties & will NOT be returning. 
 
The thing is, 10+ years is a long time.
At this point, daily forum interaction is more of an ingrained habit, than a passing dalliance.
Honestly, if I removed it from my daily routine, I'd miss it.
Hence my return the Muse Forum...pleased to be back BTW 
 
Merry Christmas & Happy Holidays to all !
 
Tom Hoffman
 

 
 
tunesmithth
There are as many answers to that question as there are songwriters.
The reason for that is simple. There is no definitely correct way to write a song!
 
Art is universally understood to be a subjective medium. Every artist creates differently - every consumer interprets differently.
To call that vague is an understatement! Perhaps Webster’s should add “art” as one of its’ official definitions for the word “vague”? 
But for creators of art, that vagueness is both a blessing and a curse.
 
The blessing part is fairly obvious. If there are no absolutes governing creation, then the artist can’t make a mistake…right?
With no strict rules, whatever decisions we make are viable…at least in theory.
And from a creative standpoint, that is truly a blessing!
It means the artist has complete creative freedom! They begin their process with nothing & end it with their interpretation of a finished work.
 
Unfortunately, that same freedom endlessly complicates the creative process.
The question asked by the title of this article is merely one example of that.
“When Is A Song Finished”?
How does a songwriter go about making that decision?
 
Chances are, unless you are a songwriter, that question has never occurred to you. That’s one of the reasons I chose this topic.
Hopefully, those of you who don’t write will get a glimpse of what’s behind our mysterious creative curtain.
 
For purposes of the article, the term “song” refers to just the essential elements (lyrics, melody & single instrument accompaniment).
Believe it or not, complexities multiply 1,000-fold once you factor in variables like arrangement & production.
Honestly, I can feel myself growing older just thinking about it! 
 
So, with only 3 song elements to consider, how complicated could this process be?
You write some words, a melody for those words & plug-in a backing chord structure.
Simple enough, right?
Yep!
Right up to the point where the writer begins reassessing & fine tuning their work...a necessary part of the process. 
 
·  Is the meaning/intent of my lyric clear?
 
·  Will the average listener understand what my song’s about?
 
·  Does the lyrical rhyme scheme work well? Does it contain enough rhymes, or too many? In either case, does it work well with my chosen subject matter, or detract from the message & mood I’m trying to convey?
 
·  Does my lyric have a solid, memorable hook? In other words, does it contain a word or phrase that’s catchy, repetitive & will stick in the listener’s head after the song has ended?
 
·  Are all my verse sections solid, or should I rewrite the 3rd? It seems weaker than the rest.
 
·  Is my title catchy? Will it be easy for people to remember? Is it short enough? Does it effectively convey what my song’s about?
 
·  Will other people find my lyric interesting? If not, why not? Does it have wide-ranging appeal, or target a specific listener demographic? Should I change something to make it easier to identify with?
 
·  Does the lyrical meter (feel & flow) sound natural when it’s sung? If not, what should I change…the lyrical meter or the way in which it’s sung?
 
·  Does the melody work well with my supporting chord structure? “Melody” is the most important of those 3 song elements, so nothing should be allowed to interfere-with or detract-from its’ effectiveness.
 
·  Are both musical elements a good match for my lyric? Do all 3 point the listener in the same direction? Do they complement one another, or conflict?
 
·  Should I add a bridge section to the song? If so, what type & where should it be placed within the existing structure?
 
·  Is the song too long? If so, what can I remove without disturbing the integrity of the overall piece?
 
·  Does my song flow naturally from section- to-section, or is the change from verse-to-chorus too abrupt? Should I have written pre-chorus sections, rather than trying to move directly from verse-to-chorus?
   If it’s not a major issue, might it be address in the arrangement phase, by adding a musical interlude?
 
By now, some of you may be thinking…is he serious?
Totally!
None of these questions are far-fetched. They represent merely the-tip-of-the songwriting iceberg.
This internal battle we wage is a necessary part of the process.
 
But sooner or later, a song has to reach the point of completion….doesn’t it?
So, the real question becomes, how much of this examining process should we allow ourselves to do?
At what point does it cease being useful & become a neurotic exercise in futility?
Once again, there is no single answer. Each writer’s process is different.
 
For me, the process became manageable once I learned to define, control & embrace my own version of it.
That’s right, I took the time to…
· examine my process
· consider my specific goals & motivations as a writer
· make realistic assessments of my up-front expectations, the tools I had to work with & my available time.
Keeping in mind that there is no such thing as “the perfect song”, I made some simple decisions.
·  I weighed what I was willing & able to put into a project, against my expectations for the end result.
·  I tried to achieve a balance between what I was willing to accept & what it would take to get me there.
From that, my version of this process was born.
Somewhere along the line, I stopped viewing songs as finished or unfinished.
I prefer to see them as works-in-progress, at various stages of development.
“Finished” has come to mean “finished for now”.
Because I also recognize the importance of re-writing, I never rule out the possibility of returning to a project at a later time.  
 
I'll close this out with a piece of advice for novice songwriters.
Do yourself a favor…figure out what your version of “finished” is going to be.
If you wait for inspiration, intuition or divine intervention to decide for you, you could be waiting a very long time. 
 
Happy writing everyone!
 
Tom Hoffman
"About Me" Muse Member pg.
Tune-Smith.com
Tom Hoffman YouTube
tunesmithth
"Pentatonic Playground” was originally called “Romantic Guy”.
It had a vocal melody, lyrics and told a tongue-in-cheek tale of a dysfunctional relationship masquerading as romantic behavior.
I’ve included a copy of that original lyric at the bottom of this article.
“Romantic Guy” was written & recorded back in 1998. Honestly…I liked portions of the arrangement, but the song as a whole didn’t work. In May of 2009, I began work on this instrumental version (“Pentatonic Playground”). With this new format, came structural changes. The original verse sections were cut in half, making this instrumental version 48 seconds shorter than it’s’ predecessor.   The 2 versions were copyrighted separately. About the Song
 
Structurally, “Pentatonic Playground” is basic.
verse / chorus / bridge / verse / double- chorus / ending
 
It’s one of four instrumentals in my entire catalog. Of those four, two began as lyrical works, eventually becoming instrumentals.
 
Typically, my songs evolve from one of the following:
- a chord progression
- a riff/pattern
- a section of melody
- a central theme
This one grew from a riff that I stumbled on while practicing stretch scale patterns.
Major pentatonic patterns to be exact…hence my choice of titles.
Both verse & chorus guitar parts are variations of that pattern, played in the key of G.
 

 
Musical Fundamentals
 
The song is set in the key of G.
BPM 116
Alternative genre
Total run time - 2 minutes 42 seconds
 
It’s a guitar-based arrangement, built around the primary progression mentioned earlier.
Guitar #1 plays the primary riff (progression) for both verse & chorus sections. For the bridge, it changes to picking single notes within chord forms. Guitar part #2 is made up of 5ths (2-note intervals) played throughout the verse & chorus sections. It switches to strumming full chords during the bridge. The 3rd guitar part plays what was originally the vocal verse melody. For the most part, the chorus sections double guitar #1. Guitar #3 drops out for the bridge section, allowing simulated strings to take over performance of the melody.        My trusty Gibson SG was used for all the guitar work.

 
The core drum track was creating using a Boss DR-670 drum machine.
I converted to synthetic drums in 2007, after 13 years of fighting with live drums in a home studio setting. 
Suffice to say it’s a tedious process! 
 
Despite my use of the machine, the drum parts were still written the old way…sitting behind an actual drum kit.
Crash cymbals are overdubbed live, on separate stereo tracks.
Unfortunately, the Boss decay rate made the machine versions sound VERY artificial.
Try as I might, I was unable to live with the results, so I continue recording those the old way.
 
Final Production Notes
 
The recording, editing & mixing were done on a *PortaStudio 2488,  a 24 track Tascam system.
(*rear-center, directly under the wall poster)

 
Performance Credits
Drums, Guitars, Bass Guitar, Tambourine, Keyboard Strings & Breaths  - Tom Hoffman And last but not least, here's a direct link to the YouTube video version of this article.
It includes the song in its' entirety.
https://youtu.be/ToAE1KtLPs8
 
Tom Hoffman
"About Me" Muse Member pg.
Tune-Smith.com
Tom Hoffman YouTube
 
 
“Romantic Guy” (Lyric)
Verse
Came home again late…third time this week
Smelled like a barroom…too drunk to speak
Next day he’s sorry…what a surprise!
Sends her some roses…Romantic Guy
 
Chorus
Romance...is a temporary patch on a bleeding life!
Good chance….that it fills the vacant place in her heart, for just one…
 
Bridge
…Night
He’ll make her feel like she’s a queen
He’ll be her slave for a night
He know…tomorrow brings
Time enough…to spread his wings
They’ll pretend for now that things are alright
 
Verse
Lost his whole paycheck…out at the track
Borrowed more money…to win it back
Next day he’s sorry…what a surprise!
Sends her some roses…Romantic Guy
 
Double Chorus
Copyright 1998- Tom Hoffman
tunesmithth
Tip #1 - The music industry is a business.
If you've had little business experience or lack a basic understanding of how the community operates, you should learn. Why? Because you cannot succeed at something without possessing an understanding of what it is. Talent, musical proficiency, dedication to your goals & self-confidence are prerequisites, not your ticket to stardom. Think of them in as you would a college degree. The degree guarantees you nothing, other than an opportunity to compete. Intangibles like "creative integrity" may be of value to you & your peers, but NOT to most businesses. Typically, they care about 2 things - making money & saving money. When you present yourself to industry representatives, keep that in mind. If you're unclear about how someone might "save" a record label money, I'll list a couple examples: Think about the huge growth of the pop, rap & hip-hop genres in recent years. The bulk of the music & arrangements for those genres is created via software & sampling. That means fewer session musicians, less studio time and lower overall cost of production. If you happen to be an artist with a huge online fanbase/following (Justin Bieber), that's tangible selling point. A ready-made fanbase means lower promotional cost for the label…once again, saving them money.  
Tip #2 - Beware of the "Scamortunity"
 
As you might guess, the term is meant to describe a scam disguised as an opportunity. 
What does a scamortunity look like? Not an easy question to answer, since they come in many forms. 
Typically, the better it sounds…
the more skeptical you should be the more extensively it should be researched the more reluctant you should be to participate Most cons (scams) are designed to take advantage of existing vulnerabilities. 
In the case of songwriter/musicians, those vulnerabilities are well known & numerous. Don't allow belief in yourself, belief in the uniqueness of your creations & your desire for recognition to become liabilities in your quest for success. 
Remember....in business, opportunities rarely come looking for you. With very few exceptions, they won't!
 
Tip #3 - Nothing is owed to you.
 
Many in this business develop an attitude that the world/industry owes them something. Simply put, that is not a productive mindset & will do nothing to further your career.
As I mentioned earlier, countless hours of dedication to your craft, skills, talent & creative ability are prerequisites, not entitlements! Most of your competitors (fellow musician/songwriters) have worked just as hard as you have. Forget about concepts like fairness. The world of business is based on many rules, but fairness isn’t one of them.  
Tip #4 - For God sake, spend a couple dollars & get your finished material properly copyrighted.
 
We're only too happy to spend hundreds of dollars on a smartphone that'll be obsolete next year. ATM fees, wireless streaming fees, credit card interest, bank overdraft fees, apps....all things we've come to accept as unavoidable expenses.
BUT, when it comes time to spend $55 on legal protection for your artistic creations, we'd rather not.
Seriously....$55 ???
That's the current online filing fee for the U.S. Library of Congress (multiple works by a single author). 
To the best of my knowledge, a Library of Congress registration is the only universally recognized method for proving legal ownership of a work.
There are legitimate legal reasons for choosing this method & I encourage you to verify that for yourselves.
 
Here are a number of resource links:
United States Copyright Office http://copyright.gov/
Why Should I Register My Work? FAQ page http://copyright.gov/help/faq/faq-general.html#automatic
Copyright FAQ - http://copyright.gov/help/faq/index.html
Online Copyright Registration - http://copyright.gov/eco/
 
Tip #5 – Remember….it's all about the vocals !
 
It’s common for recording songwriters/bands to underestimate the importance of the primary vocal track. Bottom line, vocals are "Priority #1" & should be treated as such.
Why you ask?
Simple!
To the ordinary listener, vocals are the most important element of a song.  
Sure…everything else matters! Just not as much.
 
Common Reasons for Substandard Vocals: 
· Internal Band Dynamics - every band member wants to feel like their part is essential to the success or failure of a project. But nothing outranks melody & the singer's presentation of it.
· When recording demos or finished material, vocals are one of the last things to be dealt with. If you’re working in a pro studio, you’re probably paying an hourly rate. If that is the case, you should budget your session time carefully.
  You can’t afford to blow your budget on preliminary musical tracks.
 
Take whatever precautions are appropriate. When it’s all said & done, the vocal track will represent your song.
My advice…shoot for the highest quality you can reasonably achieve. 
 
Tom Hoffman
"About Me" Muse Member pg.
Tune-Smith.com
Tom Hoffman YouTube
tunesmithth
Thinking back to my early days as a songwriter & the antiquated process I worked with for almost 6 years, it’s amazing that I toughed it out as long as I did. 
Thing is, it didn’t seem like that big a deal at the time.
 
*Links to several audio examples have been placed in this article.
Please feel to open in a new tab & listen as you read.
Drum-Only audio ("One More Time")
 
My adventure in songwriting began in 1994. Digital home recording devices were making their way onto the market, but analog was still the dominant force.
It was also the more cost-effective option. That being the case, I decided on a 4-track cassette style recorder (Tascam 424 PortaStudio).
 

 
The PortaStudios were decent devices, but they did have limitations:
No onboard effects or compression No phantom power Very few microphone inputs To help overcome those limitations, I purchased several supplemental devices:
An 8 channel Peavey analog mixer w. phantom power A Peavey DeltaFex effects processor A DBX analog compressor These were used in conjunction with the PortaStudio, providing me with reverb, compression, multiple microphone inputs & phantom power for my overhead condenser mic.
 
              
 
Without getting too technical, here’s an overview of my setup back then…
Drum set mics fed into the Peavey mixer. Depending on the song, anywhere from 6-8 mics were used (Shure SM57’s + EV condenser overhead). The Peavey EQ’d each channel individually, added a preset amount of reverb to each channel signal, combined all incoming signals into a single stereo output and sent that 2-channel signal to its next destination. That next destination was the DBX compressor. It processed the signal, then sent it to the Tascam 424 recording deck. On its way to the Tascam, that 2-channel stereo signal was reverse-Y’d down-to a single mono feed, which was recorded to high bias cassette tape. Unfortunately, with only 4 channels available, that final drum track had to be mono. Eventually, that mono track was bounced over (premixed) & combined with the bass guitar track.
Fact is, most of my analog masters are set up that way. The final drum & bass guitar recordings share a single mono track.
 
As you might expect, there were a multitude of issues associated with the process:
All drum mic adjustments had to be made pre-tape. That meant I had to balance each mic volume best I could…accounting for bleed, make EQ adjustments per-channel at the mixer, set type & desired amount of reverb for each channel, adjust individual & master fader volumes to non-distorting levels & balance the kit. Needless to say, once these parameters were set, I made only minor adjustments from session to session.   Once a final take was recorded, it was set-in-stone. The BPM was locked in and mic volume, tone + effect were virtually fixed. If the ride cymbal was too loud or the snare sounded over-compressed, I had 2 options.         1. The entire track could be re-recorded
        2. or I could live with the imperfections
Simple as that!
The decision always hinged on 2 variables.
        1. How much imperfection was I willing to tolerate?  
        2. How noticeable would those shortcomings be in the finished version of the song?
Because of the need for premix bouncing, my bass guitar recordings were also fixed. I had to estimate what EQ settings might be best once the other tracks were recorded. Same was true for the volume of the bass in relation to the drum track. Once drums & bass were bounced over, the combined mono premix was fixed. Unlike digital systems, analog recorders didn’t offer virtual track storage. Once a bounce was complete, the original tracks were erased. That opened up additional track space, allowing for new instrumentation/vocals to be recorded. Since I worked alone, components which required monitoring were positioned as close to the drum stool as feasible. That way, I had line-of-sight to the meters as I was playing. Fortunately, once the initial parameters were set, the only thing I needed to monitor was the mixer input signal. That signal couldn’t venture too far into the red. The photo below shows where that Peavey mixer was positioned. The recording deck meters were too far away to see, so I had to trust the accuracy of my preliminary settings. Playback was the only way to verify results. If something had gone wrong, the track was rerecorded. "Pain For Gain" mp3
 

 
As if that wasn’t difficult enough, there were other issues. Once a new song had been written, arranged & roughed-out…it was time to begin the final recording (keeper version).
If the song had drums, they were always recorded first. As is the case with live performance, better results are achieved when everyone plays to the same rhythmic center…in this case the drum track.
But, recording them first was no simple task ! 
With those old cassette style recording decks, click tracks weren’t possible. The track bleed was so bad, that ghosts of the original click would remain audible even after complete erasure. That being the case, the logical alternative was to play to an electronic metronome. That provided a timing center, but virtually eliminated the possibility of over dubs. Since the click was completely independent of the recorded drum track, there was no way to match the 2 for auto-punch patchwork. Bottom line -the vast majority of my drum tracks were start-to-finish takes. In other words, the entire part was played straight through with little or no patch-work.  

 
Another standard practice for drum-first recording is the use of a guide track. Guide tracks give drummers a basic outline to follow. That way they’re hearing a roughed-out version of the music while playing along with the metronome (click track). It helps in remembering the feel of a song, where various sections begin & end, etc. Bottom line – no guide tracks were possible! The reason…track bleed. Ghosts of the roughed-out guide were still audible on the finished drum recording. So, I became very good at memorizing the structure & flow of new tunes. By the time I was ready to record the drum track for a new song, I knew it so well that I could hear it playing in my head, beginning-to-end. 2 measure count-ins were recorded at the beginning of every song. This was an absolutely must! Since drums were recorded first, there had to be a way to accurately tell where the song started. How else would I know when to begin playing or singing as additional tracks were added? Obviously, that section of the tape was later erased. Since beginning sections were trimmed off in final production, track bleed didn’t matter.  

 
OK, I’m finished whining about how hard things used to be ! 
The reason for this bout of nostalgia is simple. A while back, I set up a YouTube channel called “The Story Behind the Song”. Several of those videos were based on early songs/recordings.
A few made passing reference to the fact that I’d transitioned from real drums to electronic creation, but they don’t talk much about the “whys”.
This blog seemed a good way to do that! If nothing else, it may serve as reminder of how much simpler things are for home recording enthusiasts today.
 
* Video Examples of early drum recordings:
https://youtu.be/7Y8ycXZY4gI
https://youtu.be/9DevFhT27L4
https://youtu.be/6B9hzyxp1V0
 
Tom Hoffman
"About Me" Muse Member pg.
Tune-Smith.com
Tom Hoffman YouTube
tunesmithth
It’s common knowledge that both music & musical notation have their basis in mathematics.
Each note within the system is assigned a specific time value and each relates to the others in a logical, mathematical way.
·   One 1/16 note is equal to the value of two 1/32 notes
·   One 1/8 note equals two 1/16 notes
·   One 1/4 note equals two 1/8 notes……and so-on.
All very consistent, right? At first glance, it would seem so. Until you examine the way in which we deal with triplets. 
 
For those of you not familiar with the concept of triplets, I’ll explain.
Essentially, triplets occur when 3 evenly spaced notes are played within a musical space designed to accommodate 2 notes.
For example…
·   In 4/4 time a 1/4 note occupies the space of 1-full-count, which equates to 1/4 of the total measure.
·  As was indicated previously, one 1/4 note = two 1/8 notes
·  But if 3 evenly spaced notes are played in place of those two 1/8 notes, the result is a “triplet”.
The way in which triplets are played doesn’t pose a problem for me. It’s our traditional notation of them that I question.
 
In my mind, the problem is simple. When the actual time value assigned to a note changes, so should the numeric value of the symbol (note) used to represent it.
But, that’s not the case with triplets!
When a 3-note-triplet is played in place of two 1/8 notes, the resulting triplet is shown by inserting three 1/8 notes in place of the original two.
 
So…to quickly summarize, two 1/8 notes = one 1/4 note…except in the case of a triplet??????
Who in the world thought that was a good idea?
It’s every bit as consistent as saying that two 1/8 notes = one 1/4 note, except on Tuesdays…when the moon is full.  
 
Wouldn’t it have been better to create a 12th note? If three 12th notes had been used to fill the space of a 1/4 note, that would have been mathematically consistent.
So why wasn’t it set up that way?
 
In recent years, I’ve constructed several video tutorials on shuffle rhythms. “Shuffles” happen to be built upon the same framework as triplets. That’s what got me thinking about this debacle.
Honestly, I haven’t a clue about why it was set-up this way. But, if we ever hope to inspire a change to the current system, I guess we need a viable alternative. As luck would have it, I have an idea or two.
·   As a drummer, I’m aware that 8th note triplets aren’t the only type in use. Double-time triplets (16th note triplets) are also common. Given that, we’d need a 24th note to use in conjunction with our 12th note. Simple enough!
So, how would we write our new notes? Our current system shows triplets in several ways. Generally, the number “3” is combined with either a half-moon shaped arch, or a straight-line bracket shown above, or below the staff. Well…we wouldn’t need that number “3” anymore, but it might be useful to hang onto one of the familiar remnants from our current system. So, what if we incorporated that traditional half-moon arch?  

 
Could that work?                                                                                                                             
·         It’s no more difficult
·         Players wouldn’t need to look above & below the staff to identify a triplet
·         It would re-establish mathematical consistency within the system
 
So, what’s your opinion? Is it worth changing?
After all, I’m just one guy with some impromptu thoughts on the subject?
Does it make sense, or have I neglected to consider some major obstacles in my quest to reinvent the wheel?  
What’s your take on this & is it worthy of further consideration?
As always, comments are welcome!
 
Tom Hoffman
"About Me" Muse Member pg.
Tune-Smith.com
Tom Hoffman YouTube
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